“Sharhi : Gandun Dabbobi Na Bala A. Funtua” na Jalaludeen Ibrahim Maradun

F14-Gandun-Dabobbi


Littafi: Gandun Dabbobi (Book)
Mawallafi: Bala A. Funtua (Author)
Yawan Shafi: 177 (Pages)
Buga Littafi: University Press Limited, 1975 (Publishers) – Karin bugu: 1979, 1981 (Reprinted).

Fassarar littafi daga wani harshe zuwa wani harshe babbar baiwa ce musamman idan aka duba muwafakar kalmomi da kuma hikimar dake kunshe ga fassarar littafi. Rashin fahimtar manufar marubuci shi ke kawo sabani da rudani a wurin sharhi da kuma fassara, duk da yake idan marubuci ya fito da rubutunsa to ya zama mallakar mutane kenan, ba tasa ba. Don haka ya zama wajibi ga duk marubucin dake yiwa al’ummarsa rubutu yayi kokari ta yadda manufarsa zata fito karara kuma a fahimceta. Bala A. Funtua yayi amfani da kaifin basira a wurin tsara wannan aiki ta hanya mai jan hankali, da amfani da dadin lafazi tare da cusa kwarewar harshe da yi masa adon da zaisa mai karatunsa ya kusanta dashi, ya so shi, kuma ya rinka jin kamar abunda yake karantawa hakika ne.

Gandun Dabbobi na Bala A. Funtua fassarar shahararren littafin nan ne mai suna Animal Farm, wallafar wani baturen Ingila wanda ake kira George Orwell, ko da yake dai sunansa na gaskiya shine Eric Blair. Gandun Dabbobi dai shagube ne, waton gugar zana akan juyin mulkin da akayi a kasar Russia a shekarar 1917 – wanda akayi amfani da dabbobin da ake kiwo a gandu domin isar da sako. Wannan littafi ne mai manufar jigon ilmantarwa, nishadantarwa da wayar da kai ta hanyar zambo da kuma farfaganda. Gandun dabbobi littafine mai dauke da hikima da hangen nesa. Dole mu yabawa Bala da yanda ya kwakwalo azancin kalmomi da hikimomin da suka dace, wadanda mai karatu zai ji kamar a Arewacin Najeriya aka tsiro labarin.

Wadannan dabbobi sune suka taru a karkashin wani tsohon alade waishi Dattijo (Old Major), don yayi musu bayani na wani irin mafarki da yayi, da kuma yanda zasu kori Nomau (Mr. Jones) daga gonarsa don ta zama tasu. Daga karshe dai sunci nasara wajen korar Nomau daga gandu ta hanyar tawaye (revolution), kuma gandu ya koma nasu, ya zama sune wuka sune nama, bayan mutuwar Dattijo, wanda ya mutu kwana ukku bayan jawabinsa. Marubucin yayi amfani da aladu a matsayin dabbobi masu kaifin tunani kuma masu iya tafiyar da ragamar mulkin gandu, Musamman Dantulu (Snowball), Maitumbi (Napoleon), da Karambana (Squealer) – Sauran dabbobi sun hada da su Aura (Benjamin), Akawal (Boxer), Godi (Clover), Hoge (Minimus), Kyalla (Muriel), Sangartatta (Mollie) Barde (Pinkeye), Burtu (Moses), Dafale (Bluebell), Durwa (Jessie), ‘Yarbaka (Pitcher) da dai sauransu. Dabbobin gandu dai sunci nasarar tawaye ne da Karin karfin gwuiwar Wakar Dabbobin Rugu wadda ke dumamasu :

“Dabbobin rugu duk ku saurareni
Dabbobin ko ina ku saurareni,
Nazo da zance mai faranta rai
Nan gaba ba wuya, idan mun niyya
Lalle muna iya ture Dan Adam.
Daga nan sai kasa ta zanto tamu
Mune muke iko da ko ina…” Page 9.

Sunan gandu ya canza daga Gandun Nomau zuwa Gandun Dabbobi, har sun tsara dokokinsu wadanda zasu yi amfani dasu. Ga alamu dai, Dantulu shugaba ne nagari mai hazaka da son ci gaban dabbobi – ‘‘Ya ‘yan’uwana, mu nufi saura, mu maida himmar yankan tattaka, mu ga munfi Nomau da barorinsa maida hankali’’. Page 18. An fara samun banbancin zaman gandu, da nuna fifiko da son kai tun lokacin da aka fara tatsar madara ana mallakawa aladu kawai, harda nunannen mangwaro ma sai aladu kawai ke moriyarsa. A duk lokacin da sauran dabbobi suka fara guna-guni, sai a tura musu Karambana don yayi musu bayani. Saboda baiwarsa ta iya magana, Karambana zai iya canza baki zuwa fari. Yakan ce: ‘‘Ya ‘yan’uwana, ina fatar zaku lura fa da cewar mu aladu, ba muna yin haka ne don nuna fifiko ko son kai. Da yawa daga cikinmu ba mu son madara ko mangwaro. Ni kaina bani kaunarsu. Dalilin da yassa kawai muke shansu shine don mu tsare lafiyarmu. Madara da mangwaro, ya ‘yan’uwana, ilimin kimiya ya tabbatar da amfaninsu ga aladu. Mu aladu, masu aikin tunani ne kawai, dukkan shirye-shirye da sarrafar da aikin gandun nan ya dogara ne fa a kanmu. Dare da rana fa tsaye muke don jin dadin ku kawai. Saboda ku ne muke shan madara da mangwaron nan. Shin me kuke zato idan muka kasa yin aikinmu yadda ya kamata? Nomau sai ya dawo… cikinmu babu wanda yake son yaga Nomau ya dawo”. Page 26.

Hassada da babakeren Maitumbi sunsa yayi kulla-kullar korar Dantulu a gandu, saboda babu jituwa a tsakaninsu, duk lokacin da daya yacce wannan ‘fari’ ne sai dayan yace a’a, ‘baki’ ne. Haka sunka saba yi har anka iso ga muhawarar ginin famfo (windmill). Jim kadan da korar Dantulu, sai ga aladu sun fara karya dokokin gandu:

Duk abu mai kafa biyu abokin gaba ne
Duk abu mai kafa hudu, ko fuffuke, dan’uwanmu ne
Kada dabbar da ta kuskura ta sa tufafi
Kada dabbar da ta kushura ta kwanta kan gado [da barguna]
Kada dabbar da ta kuskura ta sha giya [har ta bugu]
Kada dabbar da ta kuskura ta kashe ‘yar’uwarta [babu dalili]
Duk dabbobi darajarsu daya [amma wasu sun dara wasu]

Dabbobi sun koma da cewa mulkin Nomau yafi mulkin aladu dadi, ba wani ci gaba aka samu ba illa kawai sun firgitar da sauran dabbobi, sun kashe ‘yan’uwa sun kori wasu, sun mallake arzikin gona daga su sai ‘ya’yansu, sun karya dokokin gandu, sun koma hulda da mutane, kamar su Mallam Nasaru (Whymper), Dano (Frederick) da Hakurau (Pilkington) sabanin bayanin Dattijo, “Dan-Adam ne kadai ke cin moriyar wahalarmu. To fa, ‘yan’uwana, ga babban makiyinmu-mutum. Mutum ne fa sahihin makiyinmu…”. Page 4.

Gandun Dabbobi littafi ne wanda ya zama babban mabudi ga jama’a ta wajen rainon kaifafa hankali. Lalacewa da sukurkucewar juyin mulkin dabbobin gandu, yasa mulkin ya zama mulkin kama-karya, danniya, son-kai, zalunci, ha’inci, babakere da cin amana, wadanda har sunfi muni bisanin lokacin mulkin Nomau. Wannan ya amsa kama da irin musibobin da ke faruwa a shugabancin al’ummar kasashe da dama a duniyar yau! Gandun Dabbobi littafi ne na kowa da kowa, balle samari manyan gobe da manya wadanda nauyin al’amurran duniya suka sha musu kai, suka nemi rihalar rai a wani wuri na jin dadi da kwanciyar rai. Babban abunda mutum zai karu dashi bayan karatun wannan littafin shine ‘kusancin al’adun mutane na ko’ina a duniya.’ Watakila dalili shine an fito daga tushe daya tun fil’azal!

Gusau, January, 2012

[First published in Issue No. 9 of the Sentinel Nigeria Magazine, August 2012]

Read the English translation of the Review – A Review: Bala A. Funtua’s Gandun Dabbobi (Animal Farm)


Jalaludeen Ibrahim an haife shi ne a garin Maradun a cikin Jahar Zamfara, Najeriya. Ya kare karatun Digirinsa na farko a Fannin Harshen Turanci (B.A English Language) daga Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (2009). Jalaludeen Fitaccen Mamba ne na Kungiyar Marubatan Najeria, a reshen Zamfara kuma shine Mawallafin littafinan Mai suna “Beyond the Setting Sun” (2000). Jalal Yana da baiwar rubutu a Harsuna guda biyu (Turanci da Hausa) – Kuma yayi rubuce-rubuce da dama wadansu daga ciki har an buga a Jaridu da hanyar Yanar Gizo-gizo.